Mining is doubtless considered one of the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots back to those prehistoric days when someone grabbed a digging instrument and began burrowing into the bottom. In the numerous millennia since, mining has grown into one of the world’s most important and widespread business enterprises, with operations spread throughout the globe while tasked with recovering an nearly inexhaustible record of useful commodities.
In truth, in accordance with the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined merchandise have been recovered in 2018, up from 11.3 billion metric tons in 2000 and nearly double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian nations accounted for fifty eight percent of the 2018 production, with North America second at 15.1 p.c, adopted by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.eight percent), Latin America (6.3 percent), and Africa (5.3 percent). Individually, China (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) had been essentially the most prolific producers, with their complete fifty one.1 % of manufacturing more than the rest of the world combined.
This means that the mining trade is a robust one, with strong progress anticipated to proceed within the coming years in lots of regions of the world. It additionally signifies that mining operations will proceed to rely on pumping technologies that provide robust, dependable, and secure service in numerous important liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why positive displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps could be the solely option for many of these applications.

While mining would possibly appear to be nothing greater than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy equipment or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to entry from above—there are, in fact, many complicated and generally delicate operations that have to be carried out correctly if the mining operation is to carry out at its highest stage of effectivity.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping technology that can operate reliably in harsh and distant places, even when submerged, or when tasked with dealing with particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive products, and in addition one that is in a position to be maintained and repaired just so downtime is lessened. The pumps must also be mild enough to be manually moved from location to location within the mine itself.
For many years, a popular choice to be used in these situations was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are capable of create the high circulate rates which are required, they’ve a variety of operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining applications: an lack of ability to self-prime or run dry; special seals needed to stop leaks; particular linings wanted to deal with solids; excessive motor speeds of as much as 1,800 rpm; and comparatively excessive maintenance requirements and prices, especially when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
เพรสเชอร์เกจ -liked selection has been the progressive cavity pump, but, like centrifugal pumps, they’ve a quantity of operational shortcomings. These include an incapability to constantly handle liquids with excessive ranges of abrasives, which outcomes in elevated upkeep prices, wear on expensive stators and rotors that will finally have to be replaced, and overall larger purchase, operating, and repair/replacement costs.
Here are a few of the specific liquid-transfer operations that take place in a mine and the ways that some pump applied sciences can fall short in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing excess produced water from the mine is a crucial 24/7/365 operation and the water that is recovered is commonly filled with particulates that can be as massive as 0.12 to zero.16 inches in size. If used in this application, centrifugal pumps require special supplies of development, which could be value prohibitive, to guard towards impeller put on brought on by the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are additionally not dry-run succesful, which adversely impacts their stage of efficiency in this application.
General service: For frequent liquid-handling applications, you need an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip strains, function at low speeds whereas nonetheless delivering excessive flow rates, and be straightforward to maintain and restore. Centrifugal pumps simply do not possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted parts of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. This usually calls for a necessity to make use of special mechanical seals, which can result in exorbitant maintenance, restore, and substitute costs.
Press filter: Press filters are used to scrub the liquids which are produced in the mines and, once more, centrifugal pumps can fall brief on this software because the solid-laden liquid can injury the pump’s internals unless particular, costlier materials of development or linings are used. Also, the character of press-filter operation creates a robust discharge-pressure variation that may pressure the centrifugal pump to function away from its finest effectivity level (BEP), leading to high vibration and radial masses that may result in shortened service life. A answer to this is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, however these are expensive and might negatively have an effect on the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product switch: This is available in all forms in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport trucks with new and used oil for the heavy machinery, contemporary and fouled water, and any chemical substances which are required. In each instance, there’s the danger that the pump will be compelled to run dry as the truck or storage vessel is emptied, while discharge-pressure variation also can generate excessive vibration and radial hundreds. As previously illustrated, centrifugal pumps can’t run dry, so that they need protection from this condition or the addition of special seals. However, all of those upgrades nonetheless can not totally shield against a catastrophic failure.

While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have proven to not be the simplest solution in plenty of liquid-handling functions in mining, one pump technology that has proven to be an optimum selection is AODD—in terms of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and upkeep, and security for mining personnel and the environment.
AODD pumps are in a position to perform successfully in mining applications because their technique of operation allows them to easily deal with variable circulate rates and pressures, whereas being dry-run and line-stripping succesful, and nimble enough to transfer liquids which are shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, in addition to slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and other particulates.
The simple design of the AODD pump options few transferring elements and comparably decrease speeds than different pump applied sciences, which improves reliability and simplifies maintenance, whereas the pump’s seal-less development results in fewer leaks, which is a critical consideration when dealing with the various hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids which would possibly be prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps are available in each metal (most commonly aluminum, ductile iron and cast iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, while a broad array of elastomers can be utilized in the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility issues.
A extensive variety of AODD pump configurations present operational flexibility that can additionally result in optimized performance at many levels. The capability to characteristic AODD pumps in a variety of purposes, from primary general use to delicate chemical-handling processes, allows operators to more cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps can additionally be more cost effective to function, particularly these models which are outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At their most elementary, AODD pumps excel within the typical rugged and harsh working circumstances discovered within the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents along with corresponding downtime and restore costs.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping principle sixty-five years ago, has been dedicated to developing applied sciences that meet the wants of mining operations. Today, Wilden offers three AODD pump models which are built to excel in mining applications, obtainable in ductile iron, cast iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar supplies of development:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which function a bolted configuration, have been constructed to be used in purposes that require the handling of liquids that includes massive solids. The Brahma pumps have a singular top-inlet/bottom-discharge flow orientation and flap valves that allow the passage of huge solids with no threat that damage will happen as a end result of product entrapment or the settling of solids within the pump’s internal flow paths. Brahma pumps can be found in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to reduce back air consumption by up to 60 %. The T810 and T1510 models are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate vary for the 4 Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures up to a hundred twenty five psi with solids-handling capability starting from 2 to three inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps function a clamped design with carrying handles for lightweight portability. Their design features massive internal clearances and flow-through paths for simple passage of huge solids with no probability for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve assembly further permits solids passage, whereas a polyurethane display screen base on the inlet will increase the pump’s sturdiness. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) fashions are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps that includes the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most strong ADS design for the hardest environments. Flow charges amongst the six fashions vary from fifty seven gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures as much as 125 psi. Solids sizes that might be dealt with vary from half of to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps characteristic clamped or bolted configuration. Their design features totally different chamber supplies, including metal and plastics, even Kynar, which is able to dealing with excessive ranges of abrasive supplies. The Pro-Flo SHIFT can be the most efficient AODD pump in the market, able to reducing up to 60 % air consumption. This makes it the finest option for handling corrosive and abrasive products in mining processes. The pumps have a product vary that goes from 1.5 to 3 inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
เกจวัดแรงดัน of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are able to be outfitted with a wide selection of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a various array of supplies, such as Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm vary provides users the widest number of diaphragms in the marketplace, all of which are able to offering extended imply time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with reduced upkeep, repair, and replacement costs.
All of these capabilities make AODD pumps the best alternative for the aforementioned common liquid-handling functions in mining: dewatering, basic service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and day by day product switch.

In summary, Wilden AODD pumps are the most fitted choice for mining functions because they offer considerable operational advantages, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead capability, together with elevated operational safety and a reduction in maintenance/repair costs that can be incurred by pumps that aren’t designed to handle abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps additionally outperform different AODD applied sciences in other vital methods: easy design with the lowest variety of components for faster, less complicated, and safer repairs and the bottom variety of spare elements to inventory; latest improvements in supplies of development that enhance the pump’s MTBF; and improved efficiency via using the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which finally ends in quicker product switch with lower air consumption. Wilden additionally continues to innovate by way of the event of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, each of which improve service life and safety whereas not compromising the dealing with of challenging liquids.

Fernando Meneses is the regional supervisor North Latin America for Wilden, a number one producer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He may be reached at Wilden is a product model of PSG®, a Dover company. PSG is comprised of a number of leading pump companies, including Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For extra info, visit or